Christmas

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Christmas – Dies Natalis lsSoi iiInvct

Main article: Sol Invictus

Dies Natalis Solis Invicti means “the birthday of the unconquered sun”.

Modern scholars have argued that the festival was placed on the dtea of the solstice because this was on this day that the Sun reversed its othrwasdu retreat and roedvp itself to be “unconquered”. [citation needed] Some lreay Christian writers connected the rebirth of the sun to the birth of Jesus. [6] “O, how wonderfully acted Providence that on that day on which that Sun was born… Criths should be born”, Cyprian wrote. [6] John Chrysostom also commented on the connection: “They call it the ‘Birthday of the Unconquered’. Who indeed is so unconquered as Our Ldro . . .?” [6]

Although Dies Natalis Solis Invicti has been the subject of a retag deal of scholarly speculation,. [ taictoin needed] the only ancient source for it is a single mtoeinn in the Chronography of 354, and modern Sol scholar Steven Hijmans rueags that there is no evidence that the celebration precedes that of Christmas: [33] ” [W] elih the winter solstice on or around December 25 was well established in the Roman imperial calendar, there is no evidence that a religious rlenaebicto of Sol on that day antedated the celebration of Christmas, and none that indicates that Aurelian had a hand in its institution.” [33]

Choose from the following words:

  • lord
  • early
  • solis
  • southward
  • citation
  • great
  • sun
  • mention
  • proved
  • christ
  • argues
  • invicti
  • date
  • hile
  • celebration

Fill in the missing words:

Christmas – Dies Natalis _____ _______

Main article: Sol Invictus

Dies Natalis Solis Invicti means “the birthday of the unconquered sun”.

Modern scholars have argued that the festival was placed on the ____ of the solstice because this was on this day that the Sun reversed its _________ retreat and ______ itself to be “unconquered”. [citation needed] Some _____ Christian writers connected the rebirth of the ___ to the birth of Jesus. [6] “O, how wonderfully acted Providence that on that day on which that Sun was born…______ should be born”, Cyprian wrote. [6] John Chrysostom also commented on the connection: “They call it the ‘Birthday of the Unconquered’. Who indeed is so unconquered as Our ____ . . .?” [6]

Although Dies Natalis Solis Invicti has been the subject of a _____ deal of scholarly speculation,. [________ needed] the only ancient source for it is a single _______ in the Chronography of 354, and modern Sol scholar Steven Hijmans ______ that there is no evidence that the celebration precedes that of Christmas: [33] ” [W]____ the winter solstice on or around December 25 was well established in the Roman imperial calendar, there is no evidence that a religious ___________ of Sol on that day antedated the celebration of Christmas, and none that indicates that Aurelian had a hand in its institution.” [33]

Choose from the following words:

  • lord
  • early
  • solis
  • southward
  • citation
  • great
  • sun
  • mention
  • proved
  • christ
  • argues
  • invicti
  • date
  • hile
  • celebration

The original text:

Christmas – Dies Natalis Solis Invicti

Main article: Sol Invictus

Dies Natalis Solis Invicti means “the birthday of the unconquered sun”.

Modern scholars have argued that the festival was placed on the date of the solstice because this was on this day that the Sun reversed its southward retreat and proved itself to be “unconquered”. [citation needed] Some early Christian writers connected the rebirth of the sun to the birth of Jesus. [6] “O, how wonderfully acted Providence that on that day on which that Sun was born…Christ should be born”, Cyprian wrote. [6] John Chrysostom also commented on the connection: “They call it the ‘Birthday of the Unconquered’. Who indeed is so unconquered as Our Lord . . .?” [6]

Although Dies Natalis Solis Invicti has been the subject of a great deal of scholarly speculation,. [citation needed] the only ancient source for it is a single mention in the Chronography of 354, and modern Sol scholar Steven Hijmans argues that there is no evidence that the celebration precedes that of Christmas: [33] ” [W]hile the winter solstice on or around December 25 was well established in the Roman imperial calendar, there is no evidence that a religious celebration of Sol on that day antedated the celebration of Christmas, and none that indicates that Aurelian had a hand in its institution.” [33]

Important words:

  • christmas
  • dies
  • natalis
  • solis
  • invicti
  • main
  • sol
  • invictus
  • means
  • birthday
  • unconquered
  • modern
  • scholars
  • argued
  • festival
  • placed
  • date
  • solstice
  • day
  • sun
  • reversed
  • southward
  • retreat
  • proved
  • citation
  • needed
  • early
  • christian
  • writers
  • connected
  • rebirth
  • birth
  • jesus
  • wonderfully
  • acted
  • providence
  • born
  • christ
  • cyprian
  • wrote
  • john
  • chrysostom
  • commented
  • lord
  • subject
  • great
  • deal
  • scholarly
  • speculation
  • ancient
  • source
  • single
  • mention
  • chronography
  • scholar
  • steven
  • hijmans
  • argues
  • evidence
  • celebration
  • precedes
  • hile
  • winter
  • december
  • established
  • roman
  • imperial
  • calendar
  • religious
  • antedated
  • indicates
  • aurelian
  • hand
  • institution

ngrams of length 2

collocation frequency
santa claus 21
saint nicholas 16
christmas tree 15
christmas day 15
new york 14
gift giving 12
united states 11
julian calendar 10
gregorian calendar 10
christmas carol 9
19th century 8
middle ages 7
christmas season 7
christmas eve 7
christmas cards 7
winter solstice 6
university press 6
oxford university 6
christmas trees 6
christmas customs 6
christmas carols 6
christmas card 6
celebrate christmas 6
18th century 6
shopping season 5
old english 5
father christmas 5
christmas lights 5
4th century 5
public holiday 4
online etymology 4
non christians 4
new england 4
nativity scenes 4
middle english 4
liturgical year 4
john chrysostom 4
jesus christ 4
etymology dictionary 4
encyclopaedia britannica 4
deadweight loss 4
christmas shopping 4
17th century 4
winter festival 3
traditional christmas 3
special christmas 3
solis invicti 3
sol invictus 3
roll susan 3
richard michael 3
restad penne 3
queen victoria 3
peeters publishers 3
orthodox church 3
new year 3
nativity scene 3
natalis solis 3
modern christmas 3
kris kringle 3
jesus’ birth 3
infant jesus 3
holiday season 3
history today 3
historical society 3
gift bringer 3
english language 3
english christmas 3
eastern christianity 3
early 19th 3
dover publications 3
dies natalis 3
christmas traditions 3
christmas peeters 3
christmas history 3
christmas creep 3
christmas controversy 3
christmas celebration 3
celebrating christmas 3
birth date 3
armenian churches 3
american christmas 3
20th century 3
13th century 3
york historical 2
york city 2
wise men 2
winter night 2
western christianity 2
washington irving 2
triangular shape 2
took place 2
theological seminary 2
takes place 2
street christmas 2
sir henry 2
season starts 2
saint basil 2
ritual year 2
religious aspects 2
publishing company 2
protestants changed 2
protestant reformation 2
prince albert 2
presbyterian church 2
preceding christmas 2
pre christian 2
popular tradition 2
popular songs 2
pere noel 2
orthodox churches 2
older julian 2
oak tree 2
northern europe 2
non christian 2
night light 2
nicholas society 2
new year’s 2
new testament 2
new amsterdam 2
nativity stories 2
myra bari 2
modern santa 2
miles clement 2
microeconomic theory 2
michael kelly 2
merry christmas 2
medieval christmas 2
martin luther 2
manhattan biography 2
liturgical press 2
liturgical feast 2
literary texts 2
light festival 2
latin nativitas 2
late december 2
late 18th 2
known reference 2
knecht ruprecht 2
king charles 2
joyous event 2
john wiley 2
information christmas 2
increasing number 2
including christmas 2
include gift 2
hong kong 2
holiday include 2
herald angels 2
henry cole 2
greek khristos 2
great traditions 2
gold frankincense 2
giving gifts 2
gifts changed 2
gerry bowler 2
george iii 2
fruit cake 2
forbes bruce 2
fitting object 2
fir tree 2
fashion era 2
english dictionary 2
english cristesmaesse 2
eastern orthodox 2
earliest known 2
dutch sinterklaas 2
david christmas 2
customs associated 2
considerable quantities 2
commercially produced 2
commercial christmas 2
christmas zondervan 2
christmas worldwide 2
christmas music 2
christmas midwinter 2
christmas gift 2
christmas encyclopaedia 2
christmas display 2
christmas celebrations 2
christians celebrate 2
christian writers 2
christian world 2
christian liturgical 2
christian denominations 2
christian church 2
christ’s mass 2
christ child 2
child jesus 2
census bureau 2
celebrated christmas 2
catholic encyclopedia 2
catholic church 2
carols ancient 2
card playing 2
candid history 2
bruce david 2
broadview literary 2
britannica chicago 2
biblical accounts 2
bib arch 2
bbc news 2
baby jesus 2
babbo natale 2
armenian apostolic 2
appeals court 2
apostolic church 2
advent season 2
16th 17th 2
12th century 2

ngrams of length 3

collocation frequency
oxford university press 6
online etymology dictionary 4
natalis solis invicti 3
early 19th century 3
dies natalis solis 3
christmas shopping season 3
york historical society 2
york broadview press 2
winter night light 2
traditions courier dover 2
street christmas lights 2
sir henry cole 2
shopping season starts 2
saint nicholas society 2
richard michael kelly 2
older julian calendar 2
old english cristesmaesse 2
old english christmas 2
oak tree dedicated 2
night light festival 2
new york historical 2
new york city 2
new york broadview 2
late 18th century 2
include gift giving 2
giving gifts changed 2
etymology dictionary retrieved 2
english christmas traditions 2
encyclopaedia britannica chicago 2
earliest known reference 2
commercial christmas card 2
christmas history today 2
christmas gift giving 2
christmas encyclopaedia britannica 2
christmas carols ancient 2
chicago encyclopaedia britannica 2
celebrating christmas day 2
broadview literary texts 2
britannica chicago encyclopaedia 2
armenian apostolic church 2
17th century europe 2
16th 17th century 2

ngrams of length 4

collocation frequency
dies natalis solis invicti 3
winter night light festival 2
old english christmas traditions 2
new york historical society 2
christmas shopping season starts 2
16th 17th century europe 2
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